The Maturity of Toy Story: A Disney/Pixar Masterpiece (Video Essay)

FeaturedThe Maturity of Toy Story: A Disney/Pixar Masterpiece (Video Essay)

I attempt to explore the main theme of this beloved franchise and why I think it’s an unparalleled masterpiece…

WEBSITE UPDATE: As you may have noticed, I’ve been spending a lot more time making video essays on YouTube than writing new blog posts these days. There’s a reason for that. Although my first and foremost passion is writing about the things that I love, there is no denying that more and more interest is being generated in audio/visual content. While I’ve been stuck at home during this unprecedented situation, I’ve been trying to take advantage of the extra time on my hands to grow my YouTube channel and hopefully offer more of this type of content. However, my goal is to always create what I love, and not what I think others want to see, so I have put great care into my writing of the video’s scripts to accomplish this. I have poured my heart and soul into these videos and I hope my passion for writing still comes through in it. The long and short of this update is to say that I am absolutely 100% planning on making more written content in the future. I have not abandoned that. Videos just take a long time to make, and as I currently do everything by myself, it naturally has taken up most of my time. In addition, my current situation during this pandemic has made it difficult to create an accurate schedule or reliable method of creating content, at least for these last few months, and it will take some time to figure out how to move forward in the changing landscape of the future. My goal is to eventually balance the two  forms of media and find a schedule that works for releasing fresh and original content in both video and written form! I can’t wait! Thank you for reading this and I hope you have a magical week! 🙂

Iron Man and Captain America: a Deeper Look Into the Success of Avengers Endgame

Iron Man and Captain America: a Deeper Look Into the Success of Avengers Endgame

 

I think that it’s safe to say that Avengers Endgame has become a true cultural phenomenon. Marvel has accomplished what other movie studios have only dreamed of  doing by delivering this culmination of the epic MCU Saga. They have created a franchise that has not only been met with enormous financial and critical success, but also one that has come a define an entire generation.

But how has the marvel Cinematic Universe risen to such unparalleled success? What has been the key ingredient with their meteoric rise to fame? What is the one common thread that makes the average Marvel movie better than most other superhero films? There are many answers to this question, but if I had to pick one, I would said that it has to be Marvel’s emphasis on character.

Endgame represents, not only the epic conclusion of an entire saga, but also the symbolic fulfillment of a dozen beautiful character arcs. Every single character in Endgame has an ending that represents the thematic culmination of who they are as a person, and what they mean to the greater MCU story. Even if a character’s story isn’t over in Endgame (Thor, Guardians of the Galaxy, Winter Soldier, Etc.) it comes to a crisis point; leaving every Avenger changed.

The most obvious examples of this genius character-driven storytelling is the culmination of the iconic legacies of both Iron Man and Captain America; the two key players of the Avengers in the MCU. And to understand how these stories were so brilliantly told, we have to take a closer look at end of these Avenger’s stories.

(WARNING: Heavy spoilers for Avengers- Endgame ahead!!!)

***

The death of Iron Man.

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It was not a cheap trick. It wasn’t a sacrifice just to earn a quick tear from the audience. It meant something. From the very beginning Iron Man was the tortured hero. The hero who made mistakes. He was always a little prideful, but he also always tried to be better. Through the course of the three Iron Man movies, Tony Stark has struggled with what it means to be a hero.

In the first Iron Man film, he saw his weapons in the hands of the terrorists who almost killed him. That moment defined him. It changed who he was. From that moment forward, Tony Stark’s character was driven by a singular purpose. He knew that he had to use his second chance at life to protect the people instead of building weapons to destroy them…He had to use his wealth to save the world instead of destroying it.

And sometimes, like in the case of Ultron and the Sokovia Accords, he went too far or made mistakes. But Iron Man’s goal was always to protect. His heart was always in the right place, even if his head wasn’t. He wanted to be an armor for the weak. He wanted to save the world that he had once so recklessly endangered.

So, when Tony Stark gave up his life to undo Thanos’s snap, it represented the fulfillment of his life’s purpose…to protect the world, even if it meant giving up his own life! He gave up all of his selfish impulses once and for all. None of his past mistakes mattered anymore, because he gave up everything to save the people he loved. Everything came full circle when Iron Man fulfilled his own prophetic quote from the first MCU film;  “I shouldn’t be alive… unless it was for a reason.” This was the second chance that Tony had been waiting the rest of his life for. This was the reason why he was alive, and the ending was so beautifully executed that you feel that sacrifice. Right in the heart.

Captain America’s Last Chance at Peace

 

cap 2Likewise, Captain America also has a very meaningful sendoff in Endgame, but in a very different way. It’s one that represents the fulfillment of what fan’s have been asking for for years…A chance for the most selfless Avenger to have a shot at happiness.

Captain America has always been the soldier. He’s always been the one to sacrifice everything in the service of others, sometimes to his own detriment. In the first Captain America, Steve Rogers proved that it’s what’s on the inside that counts. He proved that power meant nothing if it wasn’t given in service to others. The Red Skull lorded his strength over others, while Cap gave up his own life to protect those who were weaker than him. That experience in World War 2 shaped who he was for the rest of his life. It propelled him on a path to always do what was right

Frozen in ice for decades after sacrificing himself to save countless millions from death, he was revived only to face a torment worse than death; loneliness. He became a man out of time. All of his friends were dead. All of the things that he once knew were taken away from him. And the one friend that he still had was twisted into a weapon against him. But no matter what, Steve Rogers always laid down his life to save others. He always put others before himself; even if it meant losing everything.. In every single Captain America film, Cap gave all that he had, and sacrificed everything that he had held dear, to fight for what he believed in; truth, friendship, unity, and protecting those who couldn’t protect themselves.

So in Endgame, when the final battle was won, and the new heroes took up the torch, Captain America finally got what he so rightly deserved. For once, Steve Rogers obtained lasting happiness. There were no more sacrifices to be made. No more wars to be won. It was just Steve Rogers and Peggy Carter for the rest of his life. It was second chance at joy. After almost a hundred years of selflessly giving up his life in service of others, Cap finally got some peace for himself. and it felt meaningful because it was earned.

And just like Iron Man, Captain America’s ending hit us right in the heart, just in a different way; proving that these two characters are two sides of the same coin. Iron Man and Captain America. Grieving and joy, sadness and peace, sacrifice and reward. The two endings may give us opposite feelings individually, but put them together and they give us a story unlike any other.

Iron Man and Captain America represent the very heart and soul of the MCU. Iron Man was the foundation and the center for the MCU’s grand story, and Captain America represented the heart; the spirit that it stood for. Together, their character arcs not only stay true to their own personal journeys, but they also represent the core of the beautiful story that they have both been a part of!

Tony and Steve feel like real people because they each changed naturally over time, and the story changed with them. They both grew as people with their own ups and downs in life. So, it’s only fitting that their endings would change the story again. This time, they would make way for a new generation to grow and change. Together, the two of them ushered in a new era for new stories.

With character-driven stories like theirs, the possibilities are endless…

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The Origin of Mickey Mouse (and What it Means to Me)

FeaturedThe Origin of Mickey Mouse (and What it Means to Me)

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There’s something incredibly special about Mickey Mouse. Even 90 years after his debut, he’s still making people smile all over the world. But why is Mickey Mouse so special? This is a peculiar question, because I don’t think people ask it very often…or even think about for that matter. For a lot of people, he just is. Today, I think that it’s kind of easy to take this cartoon character for granted and miss the spirit which made him popular in the first place.

Today, I wanted to explain what Mickey Mouse means to me. I wanted to talk about why Mickey Mouse is my hero…

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As I was growing up, I knew that I loved animation. I was already interested in movies, but there was something unique about the hand-drawn films of Disney’s heyday that captured my attention. There was an intangible charm that set them apart from most of the live-action movies that I had seen. Animation was the playground where anything was possible.

And of course, you couldn’t be a fan of animation without at least hearing the name Mickey Mouse. He was an icon; his face was everywhere.

So, as a small child who didn’t understand how films were made, I think I took Mickey for granted and just assumed that he went with cartoons the same way that peanut butter went with jelly. But as I got older, and began to study the film industry in earnest, I began to realize that Mickey Mouse represented so much more. And in order to understand why, we have to go back to his creation.

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The story of Mickey Mouse’s inception is a long one, so I’ll try to keep this recap brief for context. The most important thing about his creation was that Mickey Mouse was born out of desperation. He was created during one of the lowest points in Walt Disney’s life. In fact, Mickey Mouse’s creation was a direct result of Walt Disney losing everything. During the 1920’s, in the early days of his animation career, and before his name would become synonymous with high-quality animation, Walt produced cartoons for established industry leaders. But it was hard work for very little return and Walt was having trouble making ends meet. Still, ever the perfectionist, Walt strove for greatness and a standard of quality that made his competitors balk. But in this season of pushing for the best product possible he may have done too well. first truly successful creation, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, was popular enough to run a series that Walt’s Distributor, Charles Mintz, coveted. But Walt Disney poured every cent the company had back into his cartoons to make them better. In addition, he spent as much time and talent as was possible on improving the quality of the animation which slowed production and limited the amount of cartoons that Mintz could cash in on.

Of course, this didn’t sit too well with Mintz’s avarice. Mintz, who still retained the right to distribute Oswald and therefore could make his own cartoons (despite Walt having been the one who created the character) decided that he didn’t want Walt’s quality control. He believed that he could pump out cartoons twice as fast and make double the profits on low-quality animation. He believed Walt to be unnecessary to his own chars and swindled Oswald out from under Disney’s nose. And if that wasn’t enough, Mintz then proceeded to bribe most of Walt Disney’s top animators into leaving him. Effectively, the entire studio, save for a few loyalists who believed in Walt’s standard of quality, abandoned Walt to work on Oswald for Charles Mintz.

Even after working years for what little he had, Walt had lost everything.

Walt Disney, along with his wife Lillian, claimed that on the train ride home from this heartbreaking and potentially career-ending event, he refused to give up hope. No matter how bleak everything looked, Walt was determined to survive. So, with no creative assets to his name, Walt decided to try and create one more character to make new cartoons with. In his desperation, he sketched out a little mouse, and although the design would end up changing significantly thanks to the collaboration of a genius animator named Ub Iwerks (one of the few employees that remained loyal during the Mintz fallout) the spirit of the character was created. Mickey Mouse had been born. And without knowing it, Walt Disney created the most recognizable and popular cartoon character of all time. And he had done it during a time when everyone thought he would fail. That fateful day, Disney proved Mintz wrong. He proved that the Disney touch was crucial to his cartoon character’s success!

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The rest is history…and that’s the point.

Mickey’s history, and what it represents, is what is most important about him. What makes Mickey Mouse so special isn’t his popularity, or even his bankability (although he has both in spades), but rather what he meant to Walt Disney himself. For Disney, Mickey Mouse represented perseverance. Mickey was proof that hard work, perseverance, and quality were the keys to success. He represented Disney’s own humble beginnings, and this was something that Walt Disney never forgot.

“I only hope that we never lose sight of one thing-that it was all started by a mouse.”

Walt would say this years later, recalling the humble start of his artistic legacy. It remained a lesson for Disney to never forget how he had started out with nothing, and that he had a responsibility to treat whatever he earned with respect. To remember that he was no better than anyone else, and that what he had was a blessing.

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Ironically, Mickey Mouse came to eventually represent that very thing; an average, humble, everyday citizen who could do something extraordinary if he put his mind to it. And knowing the history behind it all, there’s no way that this could have been a coincidence. Walt put his very identity into this little mouse, because he had risked everything on him, and as a result Mickey became Walt’s alter ego, literally and figuratively. Walt even voiced Mickey for several years in his classic cartoons; turning Mickey into who Walt Disney wanted to be.

Mickey is special because he reminds us of what it means to persevere; to never give up on your dreams. Without Mickey, Disney would have never found success, and because many consider Disney to be the pioneer of modern animation, the art form itself might not have become the prevalent and memorable industry that we recognize it as today. Mickey changed the way we look at animation and shaped The Disney Company into what it would one-day become.

epcot 46So, when I look at Mickey Mouse, I cannot help but be full of gratitude for what he’s done for the movies that I love. When I see him, I’m reminded of what animation means to me, and why I love film in the first place. Filmmaking inspires me to live out my dreams and to never give up on them. It pushes me to tell stories that impact the world and invites me to bring a smile to faces everywhere. Mickey Mouse is simply a physical reminder of this love, and for that, I owe him my undying respect.

So, when I go to a Disney Park and see the statue with Walt Disney holding Mickey’s tiny hand in his, gesturing to a world of imagination, I must thank them both for being brave enough to follow their dreams… and in turn inspiring me to do the same. Mickey Mouse is more than just an iconic face. He’s the representative of a legacy that spans generations, and reminds dreamers everywhere, that they can do anything that they set their minds to. It shows them, like Walt Disney said, that “All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them.”

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Why I Love Disneyland

FeaturedWhy I Love Disneyland

Why do I love Disneyland so much?

This is a question that i’ve been asked many times during my tenure as a Disney blogger, both in the context of mocking and legitimate inquiry, and It’s something that I’ve been thinking about for a long time.

So, why do I love ‘The Happiest Place on Earth’? It seems like a simple question on the surface, but any Disneyland fan will tell you that it really isn’t. It’s so hard to put into words why a single place makes you feel so happy and how memories made in that place could bring you so much joy years after the fact. But I thought about it long and hard, and I can finally narrow it down to one core idea.

It feels like coming home.

Whenever I walk through those gates, no matter how many times I’ve been there before, I always feel a deep sense of longing and belonging. It’s a similar feeling to seeing your hometown for the first time in 15 years, or that inexplicable warmth that washes over you during Christmastime. Some people chock it up to mere nostalgia, and while that’s partially true, I feel like that limits the full breadth of emotions present in the experience.

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My Brother, Sister, and I in 2007

Yes, I have nostalgia for Disneyland. After all, I had my first visit there before I was even a year old, and I’ve been going with my family ever since. But that’s not the only thing that stirs up this feeling of home in me. It can’t be. How could it explain the hundreds of people who have never been to Disneyland before, that weep at their first time going as an adult? No, there’s something far more… dare I say…magical about the happiest place on earth.

I never get tired of Disneyland either, and as anyone knows nostalgia can only go so far…can only last so long. If the age of reboots and sequels hasn’t proven that, I don’t know what will. No, my joy in Disneyland goes deeper than that!

As a child, I adored Disneyland, and while my childhood visits were comparatively few and far between, every single one of them was an event to remember. It was a real treat, and an extremely special occasion, for me to go to Disneyland. My love for Disneyland only grew with each consecutive visit.

So naturally, when I became an adult, I would want to save my own money to keep going to the the place which had brought so much joy to my childhood years. I saved every nickel, and eventually was blessed with the chance to buy an annual pass. This allowed me to go to Disneyland more often than I had ever been before. Everyone warned me that I would get tired of Disneyland if I went too much. They said that it would stop being special to me and that I would get bored with it eventually.

They were all wrong.

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Me Circa 2010

Now I adore Disneyland more than I ever have before! Sometimes, I don’t even ride any rides, and simply go in the park to window shop or sit down on a bench to eat. It’s no longer a trip every few years, but a place I visit on the regular. In light of this fact, nostalgia seems like an underwhelming explanation for my love of Disneyland. Due to this continuing enjoyment, I often struggle to find and adequate explanation for the experience.

So, I keep on coming back to this concept of coming home. They say home is where the heart is, and that is indeed true for the happiest place on earth! I may call the place where I live home, but Disneyland definitely feels like a second one. Every time I walk down Main Street U.S.A, sit down in the view of the castle, or ride the Disneyland Railroad, I’m hit with an overwhelming sense of peace and calm. No matter how rough the outside world might be, no matter how stressed I might feel, as soon as I walk through those turnstiles, it’s very hard to remember those things. Instead, all of my senses are flooded with creativity and imagination.

Suddenly, I smell the popcorn, I feel the brickwork underneath my feet, I see beautiful works of immersive art in every direction, and I even hear the music and sounds of a fantasy world come to life. It’s by no means perfect, but it does give you a sense of safety and freedom. It may all just be pretend, but sometimes it’s fun to let go and pretend. Too many people expect perfection from Disneyland, or are too eager to fulfill their plans like a checklist, that they miss the magic that happens right under their very noses. You don’t happen to Disneyland, Disneyland has to happen to you! And once you get into that frame of mind, if you let yourself be immersed in the world that Disneyland tries to create for you, and resist the temptation to act like an adult, you might just find yourself having that same feeling of home.

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Disney trip 2012

It’s that feeling of being a kid again and playing in a world of your own imagination. It’s that sense of escapism that comes with visiting a place from your favorite book. It’s the feeling of adventure that comes with fantasizing about the past or dreaming about the future. It’s the feeling of your dreams coming true. Like a warm fire on a cold winter night, Disneyland is a comfort for those that let their inner child reign.

If you let it, Disneyland can be like coming home to the innocence of youth.

That is why I love Disneyland. Why do you?

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DCA/Disneyland Esplanade 2010

Swinging Wake: The History of The Haunted Mansion Part 2

FeaturedSwinging Wake: The History of The Haunted Mansion Part 2

Read Part 1 HERE!

The year is 1966. A thrilling adventure on the high seas has just been added to Disneyland’s New Orleans Square. But there is something else that grabs the attention of guests in the area. Something new and mysterious. Wide-eyed children look through a pair wrought-iron gates at a strange building…an opulent mansion. No one knows what will be inside, and the only hint of what’s to come is a sign that reads:

“Notice! All ghosts and restless spirits. Post lifetime leases are now available in this Haunted Mansion”

It’s followed by a description of the mansion’s offerings for retired haunts and ends with the phrase:

“For reservations send resume of past experience to: Ghost Relations Dept., Disneyland. Please! Do not apply in person.”

This sign is all guests would get about the Haunted Mansion for several years. However, instead of disappointing them, it only raises their expectations to a whole new level.

Fast-forward to early 1969…All who visited Disneyland were eagerly awaiting the future attraction; none of them even realizing the development nightmare that had been going on behind the scenes for nearly half a decade.

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They could have never known that in 1964 work on the mansion (which had already been in development for 10 years) came to a screeching halt when Walt Disney diverted all of his attention to the 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair. Everyone who was anyone at Disneyland was sent to work on the extensive lineup of attractions that would debut at the fair, and no one was left over for work on any of the ongoing home-projects at Disneyland. The Haunted Mansion would have to wait for a while.

However, fate was on the Haunted Mansion’s side, because the World’s Fair actually provided several technological breakthroughs that effectively solved any future storytelling problems that the Mansion’s had! You see, the story that the Imagineers could tell In the haunted mansion was limited by the technology of the times. The World’s Fair provided an unprecedented stroke of luck that greatly broadened these borders to previously unimagined horizons. The first of these lucky breakthroughs, and arguably the most famous, was the “perfection” of Disney’s Audio Animatronic technology; which had first debuted in the Enchanted Tiki Room in 1963. With the technological innovation of the photo-realistic Mr. Lincoln at the World’s Fair, it was finally possible to populate the Mansion with a believable cast of characters in movement, rather than in static scenes, allowing the story to be told in a much more efficient manner.

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Abraham Lincoln Figure Made for the World’s Fair

The second breakthrough, and probably the most important for the future of the Mansion, was the advent of the Omnimover Ride System. This ingenious vehicle design was an evolution of the PeopleMover system developed for the Ford’s Magic Skyway attraction at the World’s Fair. In essence, this system was a chain of individual swiveling vehicles that ran on a hidden track underneath the ground moving at a constant speed, so that passengers could be unloaded and loaded in an efficient manner and at consistent rate.

The reason why this second innovation proved such a game-changer was the fact that, up until that point, the Haunted Mansion was supposed to be walkthrough exhibit. The Omnimover system allowed the attraction to become a continuous ride-through experience; raising its hourly capacity tremendously. It also allowed Imagineers to control what riders would see, by preplanning the track layout and the programming of the individual cars to swivel or turn; effectively controlling the audience’s view of the story and special effects just like a camera lens does in a feature film.

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Omnimover System Patent

Now with the technology to tell an effective story, Disney simply needed storytellers that could execute these tools correctly. Luckily, after the World’s Fair ended, two of Walt’s greatest storytellers were now available for the mansion. Marc Davis, known for his brilliant animation of Cinderella, Maleficent, Cruella De Vil, Tinker Bell, and more, was brought onto the project for design, especially in regards to the characters. After his concepts for Pirates of the Caribbean proved so crucial to its success, Walt wanted him to help guide this new masterpiece. At the same time, Claude Coats, a Disney background painter who was known for designing many of Fantasyland’s famous storybook rides and providing the layout for Pirates of the Caribbean, was brought in for his familiarity with the spookier aspects of fairy tales.

However, there was one problem with this dynamic duo; both had completely different ideas for what the Haunted Mansion’s tone should be. Marc wanted the mansion to be funny and lighthearted, believing that a real haunted house would be too scary for a family establishment like Disneyland. On the other hand, Claude Coats believed that you shouldn’t even make a “haunted house” attraction in the first place without making it scary. The two conflicting ideologies became a temporary problem, so much so that Walt was forced to bring in a third party to reconcile the two of them.

Walt knew exactly who to call; good ol’ X!

Xavier ‘X’ Atencio was an animator at the studio in whom Walt saw something very special. Even though Atencio had never written a script before, Walt thought he would be good at it, and had him assigned as the lead writer on Pirates of the Caribbean. Walt’s insight would prove prophetic as that ride became what many consider to be the greatest ride in theme park history, and Atencio’s lyrics for “Yo Ho, Yo Ho, A Pirate’s Life for Me” would be sung around the world; remembered by thousands to this day! Walt thought Atencio might be able to pull it off again with the Haunted Mansion.

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X Atencio at work on a Winnie the Pooh feature

Again, Walt Disney was right! Atencio managed to somehow juggle Claude Coats dark tones with Marc Davis’s silly characters and create a script that balanced the macabre with the satirical. After a few drafts, a final story focusing on that “retirement home for happy haunts” was approved. This final draft would tie together separate side-stories based on Marc Davis’s unforgettable characters under one sinister-looking roof of Claude Coat’s design. Finally, the Haunted Mansion had the story it deserved, and although Walt never got to see the finished product due to his untimely passing in late 1966, the ride would have made him proud. The Haunted Mansion opened to critical acclaim in 1969 and has been entertaining guests for 50 years!

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It may have taken over 15 years to create, but it was worth it! And with 999 happy haunts to visit, you’ll want to hurry back again and again! After all, there’s room for a thousand… Any volunteers?

WANT MORE DISNEY HISTORY?:

Peter Pan

EPCOT

Splash Mountain

It’s A Small World

Alice in Wonderland

The Original Story of Han Solo!

The Original Story of Han Solo!

Why Fans Hate Solo: A Star Wars Story

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Solo: A Star Wars Story is coming to theaters this week, and it’s safe to say that not that many people want to see it. Expectations for the next Star Wars movie are at an all time low. But what is the reason for this? There are quite a few reasons, but there is one that seems to get a lot of attention. It’s a question that seems to pop up a lot on the internet; are fans upset with this film because they don’t want to know Han’s origin?

Well, you might be surprised by the answer…It’s quite the opposite really! Most hard-core fans have low expectations for this film because they already have what they consider to be a perfectly good origin story for Han Solo. Some people think this film is cheapening their childhood memories by not only wiping 40 years of Solo continuity from existence, but also replacing it with something that they expect to be inferior. These fans are perfectly justified for having those feelings, but that doesn’t mean that they will come true! So, let’s find this out, shall we?

We’re going to cover the fan-accepted origin story of Han Solo as established in the original Extended Universe, so that when you go see Solo: A Star Wars Story, you can judge for yourself which version is better! That way, the decision of who is right is up to you! Ready? Let’s begin!

The Surprising Origin of Han Solo

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The abbreviated story, which was once canon under the Star Wars Expanded Universe, goes something like this…

Han Solo was born on a highly civilized and well-respected planet called Corellia, seven years before the Clone Wars began. The specifics of his birth and early years of life are unknown, due to him suffering memory loss. However, it was known that he was orphaned at a very early age. Living on the streets, Han Solo was soon discovered by ex-bounty hunter Garris Shrike. Shrike immediately put Han Solo to work as a pickpocket and thief, discovering that the boy had great skill. Han’s natural wit and charm allowed him to pull of heists that many others couldn’t. During that time, Han Solo met the Wookiee Dewlanna who was serving under Shrike as ship’s cook. She took the boy under her wing and practically raised him; teaching him to be a good person and various life skills; including her language, Shyriiwook.

Due to several scams executed under Shrike’s leadership, Han also quickly learned how to fend for himself, and even discovered that he had an uncanny ability for piloting.

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Not too long after joining Shrike, Han surprisingly learned that he was descended from Corellian royalty! His ancestor was a benevolent king who had introduced democracy to the planet. Ecstatic for the possibility of meeting his family, Solo ran away from Shrike to track down his surviving relatives. Unfortunately, this went horribly wrong when Han learned that his aunt and cousin were sadistic and mad. They quickly betrayed Solo back to Shrike.

Solo’s remaining career under Shrike was quite legendary; his first indirect encounter with Boba Fett was probably the standout of these formative years, as it hinted a famous rivalry lasting their entire lives. But eventually, tiring of Shrike’s villainy, Solo once more tried to leave him. Sadly, Shrike attempted kill Solo instead of letting him leave in peace, and it was only the sacrifice of Dewlanna that allowed Solo to escape. As a result, Han Solo swore that he would always show kindness to Wookiees, no matter the cost.

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A few years, and a couple of shady undertakings later, Han Solo entered to most interesting and surprising part of his life: service in the Imperial Navy! Believe it or not, Han had always dreamed of becoming an Imperial pilot, and thanks to some connections he made earlier (which take place in ‘The Paradise Snare’ by A.C. Crispin if you want to learn about them), Han Solo was accepted into the highly prestigious Imperial Academy. Solo quickly gained a reputation as the best pilot in the Navy; pulling off maneuvers that others thought impossible. He graduated the academy with top honors and immediately became a Lieutenant in the Imperial Navy. As an Imperial Officer, something would happen to him that would change his life forever.

Han Solo was assigned to a duty related to slaving. It was here that he saw the atrocity and evil of the Empire by witnessing the slavery of Wookiee children. He watched in horror as Wookiee adults and children were forced to build monuments to Imperial dictators. When one of the slaves, named Chewbacca, revolted against his captors, Han Solo could not stand idly by and let the Wookiee be killed. So, Solo turned on his commanding officer and fled with Chewbacca into space. The Wookiee swore a life-debt to Han, serving him forever in return for his life.

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After that, Han became involved with many crime-lords (including his fateful employment under Jabba The Hutt) and various schemes as he ran from the empire. He gained infamy wherever he went, and bad luck seemed to follow him everywhere. It seemed as if everyone wanted to kill him! During these years of living in danger, Han met a gambler named Lando Calrissian and won two very important things; a valuable friendship with the charismatic Lando and a gambling victory against him which gained Solo the legendary Millennium Falcon. Unfortunately, Solo’s friendship with Lando turned sour when Solo was tricked into losing money that he owed Lando during a job they pulled together. It would be years before the legendary scoundrels forgave each other.

The rest is history, as the remainder of Solo’s unlucky smuggling career, and his ill-luck with Jabba, is already summed-up in A New Hope! No matter which origin you prefer, Han Solo will still always be regarded as ‘the best pilot in the galaxy’, and one of the greatest anti-heroes in cinema history.

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So, what do you think of these origins? If you see Solo, please let us know what you thought and how you think it compares to this version!

(NOTE: For a more in-depth account of Solo’s life, read ‘The Courtship of Princess Leia’ and ‘Han Solo Trilogy’)

How Captain America Was Almost Erased From Marvel History (The Surprising History of Captain America)

How Captain America Was Almost Erased From Marvel History (The Surprising History of Captain America)

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Captain America is easily one of the greatest and most recognizable comic book characters of all time. He is pretty much featured in every ‘top superheroes’ list and is often sited as one of Marvel’s flagship heroes, alongside the likes of Spider-Man, Thor, and Wolverine. Now with the Marvel Cinematic Universe, Captain America is more popular than ever, constantly toe-to-toe with Iron Man as the franchise’s most iconic character.

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But, did you know that this almost never happened? Did you know that Captain America almost never existed in the Marvel Universe? For those of you who don’t know, we must go back in time to explain. We must go back to 1940, when Marvel Comics went by a different name; Timely Comics.

During this time, the comic publishing house that would one day become one of the industry’s forerunners, was nothing more than a small company trying to keep afloat amidst the explosion of DC’s (known as National Comics at the time) superhero characters. Realizing that superheroes were the future of comics, writer Joe Simon decided to create a character of his own for Timely. The character, inspired by Simon’s disgust over the Nazi agenda and America’s lack of involvement in combating them, was created with artist Jack Kirby in 1940 as a political statement. Thus, a superhero legend was born in the form of Captain America.

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Captain America was an instant success, with his first issue selling almost 1 million copies; a monumental feat for comics at the time. There was something about the character which instantly connected with the public. Perhaps the connection came from Cap’s bravery, self-sacrifice, loyalty, humility, or even his relatable origins as a weakling with a big heart. No matter the reason, people couldn’t seem to get enough of him. Captain America quickly became Timely Comic’s most popular character, and even rivaled some of the biggest heroes from other publishers during the era.

But as they say, all good things must come to an end, and with the end of WW2 the popularity of Captain America began to wane. The writers of Captain America didn’t know what to do with the extremely patriotic Captain without the black-and-white evils of the Hitler to function as a backdrop. It was clear that they could not continue writing Captain America the same way. However, instead of keeping the character’s personality and integrity, they made the mistake of using him as branding tool to sell their stranger and less-marketable comics. As a result, the character suffered even more and was eventually dropped.

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Seriously… is THIS ridiculousness what you want to associate Cap with?!?

The character stayed in limbo from 1949-1953 where he went largely ignored by Timely Comics, which was renamed Atlas Comics in 1950. In 1953 Atlas tried to revive many of its forgotten superhero titles and Captain America was first on the list to receive the new treatment. Atlas had the idea to not only revive the characters, but to also rebrand them, with Captain America now called “Commie Smasher” and being pitted against any ‘anti-American’ enemy that Atlas could imagine; often changing Cap’s personality to fit their more cynical stories. The result of this change in Cap’s morals and integrity was disastrous. Fans rejected the revival, and this version of the character didn’t last a year before being cancelled.

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This was a major blow to the character, and Captain America seemed as if he would never rise to popularity again. It seemed as if Captain America would die a very slow and painful death as he slowly vanished from the public eye. Years passed, and although Cap never technically disappeared from Atlas entirely, he seemed to be constantly ignored.

Captain America almost disappeared forever. In fact, it looked as if comics would never see the good Captain’s return.

However, by 1961 two things would happen that would change the comic book industry forever. The first was cosmetic. After going through years of branding turmoil, leadership changes, and financial hardships, the company finally permanently renamed itself as Marvel Comics, the moniker that would eventually go down in history as one of the biggest names in comics. The second thing was much more tangible; the debut of Stan Lee’s ‘Fantastic Four’ which marked the first major step in Lee’s rapid rise as the comic industry’s biggest name. It also rebooted Marvel’s in-story universe; tying it all into a single interconnected continuity. The combination of the company’s attempt to rebrand itself, Stan Lee’s revival of superhero comics, and a firm new direction for its publications, all made the time ripe for a triumphant return.

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In 1964, after 10 years of obscurity and neglect, Captain America finally made his triumphant return in 1964’s Avengers #4. Stan Lee had insisted on the return of the icon that he grew up with, and personally championed the retcon (meaning retroactive continuity) that changed Captain America’s history to fit the new emerging canon of superheroes in the 60’s. Firstly, gone were the embarrassing Captain Americas of the 50’s, which were revealed to be imposters that took over for the real Captain America. Secondly, it was soon revealed that, although Captain America had been thought dead since 1945, he was instead hidden beneath the ice of the North Atlantic Ocean, frozen in an ageless state; waiting to be revived. His emergence from this ‘suspended animation’ in Avengers #4 was an instant success. The rest is history.

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Finally, the person writing Captain America’s story was someone who cared about the character’s personality and rich history. It certainly showed, as Captain America quickly gained the status of Marvel’s moral center; the character that fans could count on to do the right thing, no matter the cost. He’s someone to aspire to, and we all want to be like him. Even after his 75-plus years of existence, Captain America still challenges us to be the best that we can be, and to consider our fellow man over ourselves. He remains one of the most beloved comic characters of all time. So, it’s astounding to think that he was almost erased from comics forever! Could you imagine if he never existed in the Marvel Universe that we know and love today? We certainly can’t!

Let us know what you think makes Captain America so popular!

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Walt Disney’s Final Dream: Living in Utopia (the EPCOT that never came to be Pt. 2)

Walt Disney’s Final Dream: Living in Utopia (the EPCOT that never came to be Pt. 2)

A Tribute to 95 Years of the Walt Disney Company

(Note: this is part 2 of a 3-part post. You can find Part 1 HERE, and Part 3 HERE)

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The one and only Walt Disney stands in front of a giant map covered in a circular design, a broad smile forms on his face as he gushes with excitement over his newest and greatest dream. Once more, he addresses the audience as if they were an old friend.

“EPCOT will take its cues from the new ideas and new technologies that are now emerging from the creative centers of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed but will always be introducing, and testing, and demonstrating new materials and new systems. And EPCOT will always be a showcase to the world for the ingenuity of American free enterprise.”

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He wanders back to the chair that has been prepared for him by his staff. In hindsight, one might realize that Walt’s health had already been waning as he grasps for the chair and sits down heavily; but at that time, very few people knew how sick he really was. Regardless of how sick Mr. Disney was, he always had time to share his dreams with the world, and that fact never changed. He continued;

“I don’t believe there’s a challenge anywhere in the world that’s more important to people everywhere than finding solutions to the problems of our cities. But where do we begin? How do we start answering this great challenge? Well, we’re convinced that we must start with the public need. And the need is not just procuring the old ills of old cities. We think the need is for starting from scratch on virgin land and building a special kind of new community.”

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You can see it in his eyes, the joy and the eagerness to make EPCOT become a reality, and although Walt passed away before it could be realized, the plans still exist. We can still see what he had planned for the culture of his final dream.

 

2: Inspiring Day-to-Day Life

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Every resident of EPCOT would be required to work on Disney property, at either the theme park, or somewhere in the city itself.  There would be absolutely no difference between the living conditions of apartments and homes, save for the fact that the homes would be reserved for workers with families. Both would have access to the same amenities, and they would both have the same high-quality city transportation.

Speaking of transportation, EPCOT would have had the most innovative transportation system in the western hemisphere. Everything would be connected by the highly efficient, quiet, and clean Monorail system. The line would start at the Transportation Hub located right outside the city airport, travel through all of the outlying areas of EPCOT, through the city center, all away around the surrounding land, and then circle back to the Transportation Hub. All areas of EPCOT would be easily accessible and connected by Monorail. But it doesn’t even stop there!

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Residents wouldn’t even have to walk to the monorail if they didn’t want to. Each house would be located only a few yards from the unobtrusive PeopleMover line, a system of continuous carriages chained together and looping on a track without stopping. It was specifically designed by Imagineers to eliminate noise and traffic. It’s a similar concept to the conveyor belt walkways you find at the airport that never step moving, allowing passengers to simply step on at their leisure. Both the Monorail and the PeopleMover would be utilized at a much smaller scale in the Walt Disney World that exists today.

The transportation system was supposed to be so comprehensive as to eliminate the need for automobiles entirely! In fact, you would never see one in EPCOT; as the cars of tourists, and even the trucks used for transporting goods into EPCOT would only be utilized underground! That’s right, EPCOT was supposed to be built on the second level of the city! To keep pedestrians safe, and to keep “backstage” out of guest’s view, all outside transportation would take place under the very streets of EPCOT’s homes!

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As Walt Disney stated in that fateful EPCOT film, his city was meant to be at the cutting edge of technology; testing new ideas in a safe and friendly environment. To this end, Walt intended to partner with the world’s leading industries to constantly update the homes and apartments of EPCOT’s residents. They would always have first access to the latest home appliances and amenities, for no additional charge! It was quite possible for a resident to come home from work to find a brand-new stove installed in their house.

EPCOT would be a symbiotic relationship between the Disney Company, other American corporations, and the residents that lived there. In return for helping fund the building of the city, leaders of industry would receive Disney’s financial help and a free platform to test their newest products on the open market; all for a reduced manufacturing cost. The new products would then be tested by the very people who helped make them, EPCOT’s own residents; allowing the first users of a new product to be the ones that were most deserving of it. All these elements would work together to form a sort of BETA testing ground to find out what would or would not work for the rest of the world.

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Everything would be connected, not being able to survive apart, but functioning strongly as a unit. Everyone in EPCOT would belong there. It may not have been a perfect utopia, but at least it would be relatively comfortable and efficient for everyone! No one would be in EPCOT unless they were needed.

So, it’s sad to see that none of this came to be after Walt’s untimely passing. It would have been amazing to see whether EPCOT could be accomplished the way it was intended. For now, the original EPCOT is a simply a dream that we can be inspired by. If anybody could have done it, it would have been Walt Disney!

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But as most people know, a good idea never dies at Disney; it waits for an opportunity to be revisited and reimagined in new ways. So, what happened to the ideas of EPCOT? Next week we tackle what became of this idea and how elements from Walt’s City of Tomorrow can be glimpsed, even if just for a moment, in what became known as Walt Disney World! (NEXT PAGE>>) (<<PREVIOUS PAGE)

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Walt Disney’s Final Dream: Utopia Lost (the EPCOT that never came to be)

Walt Disney’s Final Dream: Utopia Lost (the EPCOT that never came to be)

A tribute to 95 years of the Walt Disney Company

(Note: This is Part 1 of a 3-Part Post. You can find Part 2 HERE, and Part 3 HERE)

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“And now, here is Walt Disney.” The narrator says as the camera focuses on an older gentleman sitting on a desk amidst concepts and artwork.

Walt Disney, the famous dreamer and architect of fantasy, warmly welcomes everyone during a special television program on October 27th, 1966; proceeding to explain what he’s been planning next. His eyes sparkle and a childish smile sneaks onto his lips. He’s filming this program to tell the world about his newest and greatest vision; the Florida Project, also known as Walt Disney World. With enthusiasm that is infectious, Mr. Disney points to a large map of Disney World and addresses the audience.

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“But the most exciting, and by far the most important part of our Florida Project, in fact the heart of everything we’ll be doing in Disney World, will be our Experimental Prototype City of Tomorrow. We call it EPCOT.”

He points to the top of the map, to an area of land that makes Disneyland look like a small garden by comparison. It’s a massive area of land, miles across, and it so happens to be Walt Disney’s greatest dream; a utopia of innovation and inspiration. It’s a new project dedicated to making the world a better place, something that Mr. Disney always wanted to do. You can also tell by the look of pure joy on his face that it is something which he cannot wait to accomplish…

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But sadly, he never had the chance.

Walt Disney passed away a month and a half later.

On December 15th, 1966, the world was shocked by the loss of one of America’s most beloved icons, a mere ten days after his 65th birthday. It was sudden and unexpected, and the world was not ready for such a loss. The people grieved, and the dream of EPCOT never came to be…at least, not how it was originally intended.

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newspaper depicting the mourning of Walt

But what was the original intention for this ‘City of Tomorrow’? Why did it never come to be?

To celebrate 95 years of the Walt Disney Company, we will be uncovering the mysteries of this final Disney dream!

1: The Revolutionary Design:

In the 1960’s, after the enormous success of Disneyland, Walt wanted to take his ‘Imagineering’ to the next level. After seeing the sleazy motels, businesses, and tourism that popped up around Disneyland because of its popularity, Walt became dissatisfied with the chaos of the city. He desired a place where living and working were safe, comfortable, and beneficial to all. Thus, the idea for Disney World was born; a place for people to live and work that would have enough space for Walt to dream up anything that he could possibly imagine…and keep the chaos of the outside world from encroaching on it. It would be his own little world for people to work, live, and play. There would be a real Disney city in Disney World, not just a new theme park!

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Walt’s city would be a futuristic, carefully planned, well-organized, and beautiful near-utopia…at least, as close to utopia as imperfect humans could get; even Walt knew that they would make plenty of mistakes and that his city would be far from perfect, but that didn’t stop him from trying. He was determined to at least make it cleaner and more organized than similar American cities at the time; meticulously designed to provide ease-of-access to its citizens. This City of the future soon became known as EPCOT, The Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow.

Inspired by revolutionary designs in city planning, specifically the garden city movement started by Ebenezer Howard in his book ‘Garden Cities of To-morrow’, Walt tasked his Imagineers with the careful and meticulous planning that EPCOT would require. The city design may have seemed simple at first glance, but each facet of the project had a million details that needed to be attended to.

 

 

The concept of EPCOT was for a radial city; a series of interconnected rings that could be built outward from the circular city center. This would theoretically keep the city connected and organized, preventing overcrowding and minimizing frustration with transportation and living conditions.

The City Center would contain the downtown and commercial areas of EPCOT. It would be here that the Cosmopolitan Hotel/Convention Center would be built; grounding EPCOT at the geographical center of the city as the tallest structure for miles around. This area would be surrounded by shops and restaurants themed to different nations and countries from around the world; catering to foreign residents and the multi-cultural audiences that wished to experience EPCOT; a concept that would eventually inspire the World Showcase section of the current EPCOT theme park. In addition, the city center was to be completely enclosed by a transparent dome to protect it from outside weather conditions and pollution.

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The second ring, referred to as the Green Belt, would contain the city’s public services, such as pools, libraries, parks, post offices, stadiums, and schools. The Green Belt would then connect to the third ring, which would contain the low-residential areas. This suburb-style area would be divided into petal shaped loops. In a green area in the center of the petals, there would be recreational spaces for the residents, with the houses and amenities circling them.

The final ring of the city, the rim of EPCOT, was to hold the high-density apartment housing and would also be EPCOT’s tourist hub; all incoming visitors would arrive at EPCOT’s airport located near this area. Walt didn’t just want EPCOT to be an isolated city, but rather an example to the rest of the world of how cities could be in the future. He wanted it to inspire visitors from around the globe to return home and make their own cities better.

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And indeed, the planned culture and lifestyle of EPCOT was very inspiring! You can read how in Part 2 HERE! Or, if you want to learn what eventually happened to the EPCOT concept, you can just move on to Part 3 HERE!

We’re sorry that we must divide this up into multiple parts! We promise that we’d be putting them all in one if there wasn’t so much to talk about! There’s FAR too much information to properly cover in a single post and we didn’t want to try and cram it in all at once. Thank you for your patience!

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